Ataata - Videos | Hītori Māori

Ataata - Videos

Hei whakaaro mō ngā kura. (Hon. Dr Pita Sharples)

E kōrero ana te Minita i ōna whakaaro mō te whakaako i te hītori Māori ki roto i ngā kura katoa o te motu. Ki tā te Minita, he māmā noa iho tēnei kaupapa te kawe e ngā kaiako.

The why and how of teaching Māori history – Dr Pita Sharples

Dr Sharples emphasises the importance and the value that could come from teaching Māori history for “every child in every school”.

He describes the importance of knowing about life from a Māori viewpoint; from the wonderful achievements of the early Polynesian navigators through to the impact of Pākehā settlement. He stresses the importance of students understanding why the Treaty of Waitangi came about and what happened after its signing. In particular, students need to understand the negative impact that colonisation has had on Māori tribal and social structures, their values and wellbeing. He describes the impact of the loss of language, the loss of land and relegation of Māori to being “second class” citizens. He acknowledges the efforts of students in the 1960s to raise awareness about the state of te reo. Dr Sharples also talks of the importance of the development of kōhanga reo in the 1980s.

He suggests that approaches be made to hapū for access to local stories and traditions. He recommends that with young students it is best to start with meaningful activities. These might include marae visits, waiata, dance, or games so that students learn enjoyable things about Māori life. He also suggests that when teaching, for example, about Captain Cook that the stories of local Māori leadership of the same period are taught alongside the stories of Captain Cook. The key is for students to learn respect for Māori leadership knowledge and skills.

Well I believe that if you’re really thinking about Māori history in its… Māoriness that all our iwi, all our kāinga have people who have this knowledge and have been tasked with the job of looking after that, of being the hander- oners to keeping it alive, to ensuring that opportunities are taken and made for the learning and teaching of generations, within the tribe within the family and I think that our people simply need to find that leadership and ask about it.  Every tribe’s got its chairmen, every tribe’s got it’s leaders it’s iwi forum, there’s a place that this could go to easily, and it won’t be a big big hōhā but that’s what, that’s why I think it’s going to take time for us to sort out and there might be some collectivising of stories.   

So I’m thinking about for example, of a school say in the bottom on the South Island, well who do they turn to?  

Well they’re there - that’s the surprising thing and you might find out that that little valley down the road, that’s hugely important for this reason and it mightn’t be for the …. But if you talking about Māori history that might be about some engagement between Ngāti Mamoe and Ngāi Tahu whereas they probably mightn’t even know about it,  but I mean everywhere you turn throughout the country there are important lessons and important histories that can make up a very rich carpet.

The Treaty of Waitangi in schools today – Professor Piri Sciascia

The underlying theme in Professor Sciascia’s presentation is that taking a Treaty of Waitangi approach to learning is an important part of growing our sense of nationhood. He says the teaching of Māori history is a way for young people to learn about themselves and others. He also describes how this helps us develop as a bicultural nation. The teaching of Māori history from a Māori viewpoint is an important aspect of the exercise of tino rangatiratanga as agreed in Article Two of the Treaty.

Professor Sciascia describes the traditional English approach to history as being more linear and dominated by the knowledge of facts and a single truth. By comparison, Māori history is more reflective, may contain several viewpoints and have no single version of the truth. It encourages questioning of who is telling the story and who is the intended audience. Māori history presents a less certain world. He sees this as a valuable attribute of Māori knowledge. He describes Māori history as strongly place-based and shows how the events associated with particular pieces of land are central to a Māori view of the world.

Professor Sciascia cautions that there is still much to be done in collecting and telling of Māori history. He stresses the importance of stories being founded in te reo to preserve the full flavour and meaning, as that was the language of the ancestors.

He sees the teaching of Māori history as an “awesome opportunity” for students to learn about events and people in their local area. This strengthens the students’ knowing of themselves and gives life to the Treaty of Waitangi in schools.

I think learning history at a young age is particularly helpful for ensuring a national identity and if something’s got a strong Māori base in it at the age then we will advance as a country on our own idea of who and what we are, which is very much a bicultural nation at the first instance that’s the first part of our national story …so I think learning at a young age is very useful for helping our national identity.

The Māori style of history and the way it’s told and so on is quite different from our normal history courses which is very linear and very authority based, whereas Māori history tends to be told from many perspectives, contradictions lie on the table as that there’s someone else that and you get a different idea of what is the truth, what is important you bring that to the table rather than this is the vision, this is correct, this had authority and there’s nothing wrong with that but it’s simply that the telling of Māori history is lightly different and it’s about learning in another way which is quite useful because it’s more reflective dealing with a different kind of reality, you learn different things as a result of it rather than the get it right answer type learning, you learn history in this way you learn about, well there’s quite a number of answers really could be right, yeah that is a contradiction and no one seems to be rushing to sort it out and find the truth so it’s sort of quite multi in it’s approach.  

The most important thing is to give ourselves time, this has not been done in a long while and you know I’d line up with a generational program, let’s check this in twenty five years and see where we’ve gone, let’s do it again in fifty years and see how we’re going without it has to get right all this year, immediately.  I think this is something that could be really exciting and grow in a different way because I think one of the Māori knowledge world contributions to universal knowledge is at this point is to bring something that will question the status and the structure without upsetting it, I don’t think there is anything to fear, I don’t think the university system in Westminster or anything else is going to tumble down because people started learning Māori history but, but it will bring questions about the nature of the knowledge, the style of teaching, its valuing in our society and then its impact which is yet unknown.

Oh what an awesome opportunity I think, I think it’s quite exciting for non Māori to learn about a history that might of happened right next, in the paddock next door to the school.  There’s all sorts it’s just amazing what could be done and I think because I would say that a lot of our history would be place based learning where you, very much tied to a locality and schools throughout, and particularly if you’re dealing with early pre-European Māori history there’s hardly a bit of land where there hasn’t been wonderful happenings, battles the whole range good to less than happy endings but everywhere throughout the country there’s a local story I would say.

The treaty is a living document it has impact and importance for us today.  Rangatiratanga over learning, over Māori knowledge it’s got to be one of its keys. I think if, what for me that does, for example is that the second article which is about rangatiratanga over taonga, and taonga is our history, is our knowledge and is our reo and one of the most important aspects of Māori history I think have we could have he mea takea mai i to tātou reo, it’s got to come from our language, it’s got to come from our Māori language versions because that’s where you get the new answers that are different from if the stuff is written in Pakeha which in English which immediately starts to fall into the linear frame thinking of ‘this is proper history’  and i roto i te reo Māori within the language, te reo it’s anei ngā korero a ngā tipuna, these are the stories of our ancestors and who told this story and why did they tell their story and who were they telling it to, and what were they telling it for, that’s a different set of kind of values as opposed to well and then what happened, what followed next and who authorised this version and it’s a different kind of framing of the story and I think that’s one of its biggest contributions.

I think the place of the treaty in primary schools is fundamental, the point is is that weather it’s written on a piece of paper in the local school curriculum or not it’s still there, that’s what happened to us as children we thought ‘oh well we were coming across something new’ but in fact our parents lived it, it was, it was a framing for them and what’s important I think most important for them to know and to understand is the living nature of the treaty, is that 1840 doesn’t prescribe what, how to think about the treaty and what was important.  What’s important right now is the sense that we’re making of it today.  

 

 

Māori history is for all – Professor Piri Sciascia

Professor Sciascia emphasises the importance of local Māori knowledge and how all students benefit from understanding local history. He provides advice on how schools can engage with that knowledge. His central theme is putting Māori at the centre of Māori history.

In his view Māori history is held by Māori and each iwi have people who are the guardians and repositories of these local histories. These are people who have been given the task by the iwi of keeping the traditional stories and handing them on to each new generation.

He provides an example of a hypothetical school in the South Island. The students’ learning would be enriched by hearing the tales of the interchanges between Ngāti Māmoe and Ngāi Tahu that may have taken place in a local valley near the school.

Professor Sciascia emphasises the need to treasure local stories and those who tell them – they help history come alive.

He recommends that schools seek help from iwi leadership to access the people who have the stories. Schools should work through the established organisational structures of the iwi when seeking this help.

Ētahi wheako mai i mua. (Professor Piri Sciascia)

E kōrero ana a Piri mō ana akoranga hītori, i tana taiohitanga i te kura o Pōrangahau. E ai ki a ia ko tēnei te wā kia whakaakona ai ngā hītori Māori, arā ngā hītori o Aotearoa, ki ngā ākonga katoa, ahakoa ko wai.

Mēnā ka pono tātou ki tēnei mea te hītori Māori meinga kia Māori, arā ahakoa kāore te kaiwhakaako Pākehā e mōhio ki te reo engari me take tonu mai ana whakaakotanga i te reo kia āta, tēnā ka whakapākehātia nei te āhua o ngā kōrero i roto i te reo Māori hei whāinga māna. Kaua e titiro kē ki tōna ake taha, ki te taha Pākehā nei mō ngā hītori ka tango mai i te ao Māori, ka whakaurua ki roto i tā te ao Pākehā engari te mea nui nei ina ka takea mai i te, i te reo Māori, i te ao Māori, ā, e taea e tātou te kī “ko te hītori Māori tēnei.”

Mea nui ki a au, i a mātou e tamariki ana i te kura o Pōrangahau ka ako mātou i tēnei tangata i meatia nei i tō mātou kaiwhakaako, ko Te Kūti tērā.  Kāore hoki mātou i te tino mōhio ko wai a Te Kūti, engari te rongo a tō mātou kura māhita Pākehā nei, he tino nanakia, me patua nei e te Kāwana, ērā tūāhuatanga.  

Kāore he paku kōrero mai ki a mātou, kāore a ia i te mōhio, kāore hoki mātou i te mōhio, nō muri rawa nei mātou i mōhio, i haere mai te tangata nei a Te Kooti, koirā Te Kūti, i haere mai a ia ki Pōrangahau, i whakamanuhiritia i runga i tō mātou marae. Nā ina mātou ki tērā taha o te awa e ako ana i roto i tō tātou kura o te wā, kura Pākehā, kura Māori he Māori katoa mātou te nuinga, engari kāore he paku whakaaro mō te haeremaitanga o Te Kooti ki Pōrangahau. Kei whea mai!

Ia kāinga i roto i ēnei rā, ki a au nei he pai mēnā ka āta whakaaro rātou, ka āta pātai atu ki ngā hapū ki ngā marae pātata nei ki ō rātou kura ki te whakaatu mai tērā pea he aha ngā kōrero motuhake, ngā kōrero e tino kaingākautia ana e koutou ngā Māori o tēnei takiwā, tēnā whakaatūngia mai pea, ngā mea e hiahia ana koe, koutou nā te whakatū mai, te kōrero mai hei whakaakoranga mā ngā tamariki nā te mea hoki huri noa i te motu, ahakoa kei hea koe e kura māhita ana, kei reira rā he kōrero Māori nui, nō taua takiwā tonu.  Inā i roto i te reo Pākehā kua rongo au i ngā kōrero mō te Place Based Education ka rawe mō tēnei kaupapa rā, Nā te mea hoki inā te tūnga mai o tētahi whakahaerenga, ētahi mahi i mahia e ō tātou tīpuna, i tēnā marae, i tēnā kāinga, i tēnā maunga, i tēnā awa, ērā mea katoa kei reira ka huri noa i te motu.

Ki a au nei ko te tino mea o te, o te tiriti mō tātou o Aotearoa kia āta mōhio ai tātou. E mōhio ana tātou ngā Māori, ētahi o tātou kāore i te tino mārama, nā te mea hoki, kua riri nei ki tā te Pākehā whakaaro taua mea te tiriti arā noa atu, 1840 mahia mai i tērā inā tōna taunga mutu atu, engari  ki a tāua te Māori kei konei i tēnei rangi tonu nei  ko ēnei te haere o ēnei mea te kaupapa e kōrero nei e tātou, nā, nā te mea he taonga tēnei me āta titiro te ao Pākehā, Aotearoa ki te rangatiratanga o tēnei taonga. He aha hoki tēra? Nā, kaua mā te Manatū Mātauranga e kī “anei” kāo, kāo. Inā te rangatiratanga o te kaupapa inā te ao Māori, ngā kaitiaki i tēnei mātauranga, me aro mai ki tēnei taha, hei tīmatanga mā tātou.  Kāore e kore, e rua ngā wāhanga o te tiriti engari, te mea nui mēnā ka aro pērā atu ngā whakaaro o ngā kaiwhakaako ki ngā tāngata mōhio o te ao Māori ki ngā kōrero ki ngā hītori, ā, kua haere koe ki hea?  Kei reira tēnā kāinga, tēnā whānau tēnā hapū, he tangata kua whakaakongia e ngā mātua tīpuna. He tāne wahine rānei, ko ia te kaipupuri i te mauri o aua kōrero.  Inā me whakapā atu ki a rātou me ngā rangatira me ngā kaumātua o te whānau kia āta mōhio ai tātou, anei te haere o ngā kōrero tēnā, whāngaihia ēnei ki ngā hinengaro o ngā tamariki mokopuna hei whakaakoranga mā rātou.  Nē, koinei te mea nui o te tiriti kei te ora, kei te ora katoa ēnei āhuatanga i roto i a tātou - Ngāi Māori huri noa.

To know one’s history is to know oneself – Deanne Thomas

Deanne introduces Māori history and describes how it has been missing from our education. She emphasises the importance of each of us knowing who we are, where we are from, and knowing the history of where we live. Māori history is populated by powerful leaders and significant events that should be part of the knowledge of all New Zealanders. Māori history is New Zealand history. It complements the histories of New Zealand’s more recent settler groups. Deanne reminds us that our students, through their whakapapa links to hapū and iwi, are a wonderful resource for answering the questions about local history.

Kia ora koutou, I’m Deanne Thomas.  Here we are in 2014 thinking about teaching Māori history in primary schools right across New Zealand.  What an exciting opportunity that is!  I think about what I learnt about Māori history as a young person growing up and actually it wasn’t very much.  What I did learn about was the British kings and queens, the Irish revolution, the Italian revolution, the first and second world wars, but I didn’t really learn much about me and who I was, so I’m pretty excited about this hītori Māori - the guidelines that you’ve got called Te Takanga o te Wā.

It’s very easy to say this is much too difficult for me, but actually it is not.  Māori history is New Zealand history and it’s not exclusive of the history of anybody else, but each partner, each person, each cultural group that lives in New Zealand has a role to contribute to the history of our children in our schools.  To know one’s history is to know one’s self and it’s really important that every child understands who they are, where they’re from, what land surrounds their papakāinga, what does that land mean, what did it mean to the old people.   

There are numerous leaders who have changed the events of Māori history and indeed New Zealand history over the last hundred to 200 years.  The names that come immediately to mind, Te Atairangikaahu, Tawhio, Te Whiti o Rongomai, Te Rauparaha.   They’re all names that should be second nature to every child in New Zealand.  

I wish you all the best with Te Takanga o te Wā and if you get stuck the answers to the history in your school area are within your whānau, within your hapū and within your iwi and there are always connects to those hapū and iwi through the children themselves.  All the best and kia ora koutou.

He kōrero akiaki. (Deanne Thomas)

Ka hoki ngā whakaaro o Deanne ki ngā Kīngi me ngā Kuini o Ingarangi, ā, ki ngā akoranga o tana taitamarikitanga. Ka akiaki ia i ngā kaiako ki te whakaora i te hītori Māori hei oranga mō ngā tamariki mokopuna o ēnei wā.